Volume 6, Issue 3 (2021)                   IJMPP 2021, 6(3): 519-528 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Salim N, vishal J. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Musculoskeletal Pain among Secondary School Students. IJMPP 2021; 6 (3) :519-528
URL: http://ijmpp.modares.ac.ir/article-32-50369-en.html
1- Open University of Mauritius, Moka, Mauritius, India , snauzeer@yahoo.com
2- Reduit University of Technology
Abstract:   (1449 Views)
Aim: The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors associated with the occurrence of shoulder pain, neck pain, upper back pain and lower back pain with particular focus on carrying schoolbags.
Method and Materials: A questionnaire containing a range of MusculoSkeletal Pain (MSP) related information was designed specifically for a group of schoolchildren aged 11 to 20 years and distributed to Grade 7 to Grade 13 students attending three main secondary education schools in Mauritius over the period July 2017 to February 2018. A total of 1048 questionnaires were circulated out of which 849 were useable. The study analyzed the impact of socio-economic characteristics, student perception of use of tablets, type of schoolbag, private tuition, performance, duration of bag carriage and anthropometric characteristics on musculoskeletal pain. Logistic regressions models were applied to inspect how those recorded factors contribute to the occurrence of musculoskeletal pain.
Findings: The main findings in this paper indicate that students from single-sexed girl and mixed schools relative to boys’ schools, student perception of tablet use, backpack schoolbag relative to handbag and shoulder-bag, performance, total weight and excess weight of schoolbags have significant positive impact on musculoskeletal pain.
Conclusion: The results point towards the importance of raising awareness among students to achieve a positive musculoskeletal health. Information obtained is deemed to affect schoolbook and equipment-carrying behaviour and future choice of schoolbag type.
Full-Text [PDF 375 kb]   (577 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Sport Sciences, Therapy and Medicine
Received: 2021/02/21 | Accepted: 2021/04/7 | Published: 2021/06/20

1. Goldin, C., Katz, LF. Human capital and social capital: the rise of secondary schooling in America, 1910-1940. J. Interdiscip. Hist.1999; 4(29): 683- 723. [DOI:10.1162/002219599551868]
2. Quiggin, J. Human capital theory and education policy in Australia. Australian Econ Rev.1999;32(2):130-144. [DOI:10.1111/1467-8462.00100]
3. Mikkelsson M., Salminen, JJ., Kautiainen H.. Nonspecific musculoskeletal pain in preadolescents. Prevalence and 1-year persistence. Pain.1997(a);73(1): 29-35. [DOI:10.1016/S0304-3959(97)00073-0]
4. Burton KD., Lydon JE., D'alessandro DU., Koestner R. The differential effects of intrinsic and identified motivation on well-being and performance: prospective, experimental, and implicit approaches to self-determination theory. J. Pers. Soc. Psycol.2006; 4(91):750-62 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.91.4.750]
5. Hakala P., Rimpelä A., Salminen JJ., Virtanen SM. Rimpelä M. Back, neck, and shoulder pain in Finnish adolescents: National cross sectional surveys. BMJ.2002; 325(7367):743 [DOI:10.1136/bmj.325.7367.743]
6. Hakala PT, Saarni LA., Punamäki RL, Wallenius MA, Nygård CH, Rimpelä AH. Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Computer Use Among Finnish Adolescents-Pain Intensity and Inconvenience to Everyday Life: A Cross-Sectional Study. 2012; BMC Musculoskele Disord:13(41). [DOI:10.1186/1471-2474-13-41]
7. Kędra A, Czaprowski D. Epidemiology of back pain in children and youth aged 10-19 from the area of the Southeast of Poland. Biomed Res Int.2013;2013. [DOI:10.1155/2013/506823]
8. Rajan P, KotiA. Ergonomic assessment and musculoskeletal health of the underprivileged school children in Pune, India. Health Promot Perspect. 2013; 1(3): 36-44
9. Dianat I, Javadivala Z, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Asl Hashemi A, Haslegrave CM. The Use Of Schoolbags And Musculoskeletal Symptoms Among Primary School Children: Are The Recommended Weight Limits Adequate ?. Ergonomics.2013; 1(56): 79- 89. [DOI:10.1080/00140139.2012.729612]
10. Malik LA, Pasha MU, Khalid S, Ahmad A, Gilani SA. Prevalence of Neck Pain among Undergraduate Students of Lahore. J. sci. eng. 2017;8(10):569- 576
11. Mikkelsson M, Sourander A, Piha J, Salminen JJ. Psychiatric Symptoms In Preadolescents With Musculoskeletal Pain And Fibromyalgia. Pediatrics.1997(b); 100(2):220-227. [DOI:10.1542/peds.100.2.220]
12. Linton SJ. Risk factors for neck and back pain in a working population in Sweden. Work Stress.1990; 4(1):41-49. 13. [DOI:10.1080/02678379008256963]
13. Hakala PT, Saarni LA, Punamäki RL, Wallenius MA, Nygård CH,Rimpelä AH. Musculoskeletal symptoms and computer use among Finnish adolescents - pain intensity and inconvenience to everyday life: a cross-sectional study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord.2012; 13 (41). [DOI:10.1186/1471-2474-13-41]
14. Jovinius J. An Investigation of the Effect of Geographical Location of Schools to the Students' Academic Performance: A Case of Public Secondary Schools in Muleba District,Tanzania (Doctoral dissertation, The Open University Of Tanzania). 2015.
15. Aundhakar CD, Bahatkar KU, Padiyar MS, Jeswani DH, Colaco S. Back pain in children associated with backpacks. Indian J Pain. 2015;29:29-31 [DOI:10.4103/0970-5333.145941]
16. Haq SA, Darmawan J, Islam MN, Uddin MZ, Das BB, Rahman F, et al.. Prevalence Of Rheumatic Diseases And Associated Outcomes In Rural And Urban Communities In Bangladesh: A COPCORD Study. J. Rheumatol. 2005; 32(2):348-353.
17. Mwaka ES, Munabi IG, Buwembo W, Kukkiriza J, Ochieng, J. Musculoskeletal Pain and School Bag Use: A Cross-Sectional Study Among Ugandan Pupils. BMC Res Notes.2014;7:222. [DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-222]
18. Al-Qato AO, Issa K, Abu-Hijleh G. The Influence of Backpacks on Students backs: A Cross-Sectional Study of Schools in Tulkarm District (Doctoral dissertation, Masters Thesis. An-Najah National University). 2012.
19. Lewandowski J, Lukaszewska K. Characteristics Of BP In Polish Youth Depending On Place Of Residence. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2014;21(3):644-648. [DOI:10.5604/12321966.1120618]
20. El-Nagar SA, Mady MM. School Bag Usage, Postural and Behavioral Habits and Its Effect on Back Pain Occurrence Among School Children. Am. J. Nurs. Sci. 2017; 6(3):2016-231. [DOI:10.11648/j.ajns.20170603.20]
21. Power C. Social and economic background and class inequalities in health among young adults. Soc Sci Med.1991; 4(32):411-417. [DOI:10.1016/0277-9536(91)90342-A]
22. Hestbaek L, Korsholm L, Leboeuf-Yde C, Kyvik KO. Does Socioeconomic Status In Adolescence Predict Low BP In Adulthood? A Repeated CrossSectional Study of 4,771 Danish Adolescents. Eur Spine J; 17(12):1727-34 [DOI:10.1007/s00586-008-0796-5]
23. Kumar G, Chhabra A, Dewan V, Yadav TP. Idiopathic Musculoskeletal Pain in Indian Children- Prevalence and Impact On Daily Routine. Revista brasileira de reumatologia.2017;57(1): 8-14. [DOI:10.1016/j.rbr.2015.03.005]
24. Leboeuf-Yde C, Wedderkopp N, Andersen LB, Froberg K, Hansen HS. 2002. BP Reporting In Children And Adolescents: The Impact Of Parents' Educational Level. J Manipulative Physiol Ther.2002; 25(4):216-220. [DOI:10.1067/mmt.2002.123172]
25. Uyal BN, Yel EB, Korhan O. Impact of Traditional Education and Tablet-Assisted Education On Students: A Comparative Analysis. Eurasia J. Math. Sci. Technol. Educ. 2017; 13(11): 7205- 7213. [DOI:10.12973/ejmste/79045]
26. Zimerman, M. E-Readers In An Academic Library Setting. Library Hi Tech. 2011 ;29(1); :91-108. [DOI:10.1108/07378831111116930]
27. Embong AM, Noor AM, Hashim HM, Ali RM, Shaari ZH. E-Books As Textbooks In The Classroom. Procedia Soc Behav Sci.2012; 47:1802-1809. [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.903]
28. Lee SP, Hsu YT, Bair B, Toberman M, Chien LC. Gender And Posture Are Significant Risk Factors To Musculoskeletal Symptoms During Touchscreen Tablet Computer Use. J Phys Ther Sci .2018; 30(6):855-861. [DOI:10.1589/jpts.30.855]
29. Rontogiannis D, Tsaklis P, Mavromoustakos S, Kottaras S. Comparison between two different types of school bags and musculoskeletal symptoms in primary school students. IETI Trans Ergon Saf. 2017; 2(1): 11-21.
30. Melo-Marins DD, Carvalho RGDS, Gomes LE. Weight Of School Material And BP In Students Leaving Their Books At School. Rev Dor. 2015;16(4): 276-279. [DOI:10.5935/1806-0013.20150056]
31. Natasha AA, Syukri AA, Diana MKSN, ImaNirwana S, Chin KY. The association between backpack use and low back pain among preuniversity students: A pilot study. J. Taibah Univ. Medical Sci.2018; 2(13):205-209. [DOI:10.1016/j.jtumed.2017.06.005]
32. Muppidi GE, John AS, Angel MR, Thomvic MR, Rebekah G, Padankatti SM. Burdened by the bag: A school-based cross-sectional survey. Indian J Physiother Occup Ther. 2019; 4(51): 140-144 [DOI:10.4103/ijoth.ijoth_13_19]
33. George D, Nayak BS, Shetty S. Bag Pack Weight and Musculoskeletal Discomfort Among School Children. Nurs. Midwifery. Res. 2015;11(30: 97- 102. [DOI:10.33698/NRF0188]
34. Mcgrady A, Moss D. Integrative Pathways: Navigating Chronic Illness With A Mind-Body-Spirit Approach. E book 2018, Springer. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-89313-6]
35. Triki M, Koubaa A, Masmoudi L, Fellmann N, Tabka Z. Prevalence And Risk Factors Of Low BP Among Undergraduate Students Of A Sports And Physical Education Institute In Tunisia. Libyan J Med. 2015; 10(1): 26802. [DOI:10.3402/ljm.v10.26802]
36. Vijay S, Ide M. Musculoskeletal Neck and Back Pain in Undergraduate Dental Students At A UK Dental School-A Cross-Sectional Study. Br Dent J.2016;221(5):P.241-5. [DOI:10.1038/sj.bdj.2016.642]
37. Sampaio MHLDM, Oliveira LCD, Pinto FJM, Muniz MzA, Gomes RCTF, Coelho GRL.. Postural Changes And Pain In The Academic Performance Of Elementary School Students. Fisioter. mov. 2016; 29(2): 295-303. [DOI:10.1590/0103-5150.029.002.AO08]
38. Shan Z, Deng G, Li J, Li Y, Zhang Y, Zhao Q. Correlational Analysis Of Neck/SP And Low BP With The Use Of Digital Products, Physical Activity And Psychological Status Among Adolescents In Shanghai. Plos One.2013;8(10): e78109. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078109]
39. Yang TC, Matthews SA, Chen VYJ. Stochastic Variability in Stress, Sleep Duration, And Sleep Quality Across the Distribution Of Body Mass Index: Insights From Quantile Regression. Int. J. Behav. Med. 2014;21(2) :282-291. [DOI:10.1007/s12529-013-9293-2]
40. Harding JL, Backholer K, Williams ED, Peeters A, Cameron AJ, Hare MJ et al. Psychosocial Stress Is Positively Associated with Body Mass Index Gain Over 5 Years: Evidence from The Longitudinal Ausdiab Study. Obesity. 2014; 22(1):277-286. [DOI:10.1002/oby.20423]
41. Spiteri K, Busuttil ML, Aquilina S, Gauci D, Camilleri E, Grech, V. Schoolbags abd Back Pain In Children Between 8 And 13 Years: A National Study. Br. J. Pain. 2017;11(2): 81-86. [DOI:10.1177/2049463717695144]
42. Hershkovich O, Friedlander A, Gordon B, Arzi H, Derazne E, Tzur D, et al. Associations of Body Mass Index And Body Height With Low BP In 829,791 Adolescents. Am.J. Epidemiol. 2013;178(4): 603-609. [DOI:10.1093/aje/kwt019]
43. Tantawy SA, Abdul Rahman A, Abdul Ameer M. The relationship between the development of musculoskeletal disorders, body mass index, and academic stress in Bahraini University students. Korean J Pain.2017;30(2):126-133. [DOI:10.3344/kjp.2017.30.2.126]
44. Wigram J. Why Is Low Back Pain Common in Adolescence. Educ. Health.2002;20:36-37.
45. Grimmer K, Williams M Gender-Age Environmental Associates of Adolescent Low BP. Appl Ergon. 2000; 31: 343-360. [DOI:10.1016/S0003-6870(00)00002-8]
46. Chansirinukor W, Wilson D, Grimmer K, Dansie B, Effects of Backpacks On Students: Measurement of Cervical and Shoulder Posture. Aust J Physiother.2001; 47(2): 110-116. [DOI:10.1016/S0004-9514(14)60302-0]
47. Paušić J, Kujundžić H, Penjak A. Possible Influences of A Heavy Backpack On BP Syndrome In Primary School Children. Croatian J Educ.2013; 15(2): 275-87.
48. Brzęk A, Dworrak T, Strauss M, Sanchis-Gomar F, Sabbah I, Dworrak B, et al. The weight of pupils' schoolbags in early school age and its influence on body posture. BMC musculoskele disord. 2017; 18(1):117. [DOI:10.1186/s12891-017-1462-z]
49. Yoon JG. Correlations Between Muscle Activities And Strap Length And Types Of School Bag During Walking. J Phys Ther Sci. 2014;26(12):1937- 1939. [DOI:10.1589/jpts.26.1937]
50. Grimmer KA, Williams MT, Gill TK. The Associations Between Adolescent Head-On-Neck Posture, Backpack Weight, And Anthropometric Features. Spine.1999; 1:24(21): 2262-7. [DOI:10.1097/00007632-199911010-00015]
51. Springett AG, Wise JE, Promoting Healthy Backs in Schools: An Evaluative Study. Health Educ. 2007;107(5): 463-479. [DOI:10.1108/09654280710778592]
52. Milbradt SN, Pranke GI, Texeira, CS, Lemos LF, Alves RF, Mota CB. Aspectos Da Coluna Vertebral Relacionados À PosturaEmCrianças E AdolescentesEmIdade Escolar. Fisioter Bras. 2011:12(2): 127-32. [DOI:10.33233/fb.v12i2.812]
53. George D, Nayak BS, Shetty S. Bag Pack Weight and Musculoskeletal Discomfort Among School Children. Nursing And Midwifery Research. 2015;11(3): 97-102. [DOI:10.33698/NRF0188]
54. Rai A, Agarawal S. Back Problems Due To Heavy Backpacks In School Children. J Hum Soc Sci. 2013; 10960:22-26. [DOI:10.9790/0837-1062226]
55. Drzał-Grabiec J, Snela S, Rachwał M, Rykała J, Podgórska J. Effects of Carrying A Backpack In A Symmetrical Manner On The Shape Of The Feet. Ergonomics.2013; 56(10): 1577-1583. [DOI:10.1080/00140139.2013.828102]
56. Walicka-Cupryś K, Skalska-Izdebska R, Rachwał M, Truszczyńska A. Influence Of The Weight Of A School Backpack On Spinal Curvature In The Sagittal Plane Of Seven-Year-Old Children. Biomed Res Int.2015;2015. [DOI:10.1155/2015/817913]
57. López-Aragón, L, López-Liria R, CallejónFerre ÁJ, Gómez-Galán M. Applications of The Standardized Nordic Questionnaire: A Review. Sustainability.2017; 9(9):1514. [DOI:10.3390/su9091514]
58. Holman.Medical Research Council's Committee On The Aetiology Of Chronic Bronchitis. Instructions for The Use of the Questionnaire On Respiratory Symptoms: Devon, Australia, 1966.
59. Alshagga MA, Nimer AR, Yan LP, Ibrahim IAA, AlGhamdi SS, Al-Dubai SAR. Prevalence and factors associated with neck, shoulder and low back pains among medical students in a Malaysian Medical College. BMC Res Notes.2013; 1(6):244. [DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-6-244]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.